Week nine – Writing Speech – Script Writing

The final week of the portfolio includes a draft script, an audio dry run of reading this draft script, and a overall reflection of the nine week blog post activities, (CQUniversity, 2018a).

Draft script:


Audio dry run through of script above:


Reflection of blog assignment from week 1 to 9.

Where do I start.  The weekly blogging activity for me has been an experience.   I have found it useful, and it has been a great learning tool. As the unit goes into great detail learning about speech and script.

There were times where I was challenged to read material that I would not normally read.  Which required me to really focus hard on the reading, to be able to pull out the key points and summarise them in a discussion.

I have appreciated having the opportunity to practice my writing and opportunities to practice recording voiceovers.

It has been interesting to learn more about the different perspective, of when you are looking at your own voice as a tool to use it professionally, as opposed to everyday talk.  When critically reviewing the voice overs, it allowed me to use the theory and terms that I had learnt in an actual practical experience, which I found really useful.

I have learnt a lot.  Learnt more about the theory of speech and voice. Learning about what rhetoric is and how it is present in our every day life (Aristotle, 350 B.C.E.).

I have really worked on my time management skills. Trying to balance my time between assignments, with trying not to spend more time on one assignment for a unit and then having to try and catch up on another.  That has been challenging for me.

There were days, where I felt really overwhelmed by workload.  I would have to walk away from it for a couple of days and then come back to it refreshed.

There were some activities where I thought they would be done a lot quicker, however, in the end took a lot longer to complete than expected.  Working on it one step at a time, until the blog assignment was completed.

It has been a huge assignment, though I have really enjoyed it, and feels good to complete it and submit it.

My understanding and knowledge of speech and script has improved a lot because of this unit.  I have had experience in both of these areas of speech and script prior to this unit.

However, I have had the opportunity to learn more about speech and script in this unit.  It is structured well, and I liked how each weekly activity had a purpose, and went into different aspects of speech and script.

Moving forward onto the final assignment, I feel very organised, with the structure, outline in place.

That comes from having those weekly activities in this assignment where we did focus on what goes in a speech, who the speech is for, why and how, (CQUniversity, 2018).

As well as during the blogging activities, looking at examples of professional voice, genre’s of speech and what makes a good speech, (CQUniversity, 2018).

The final assignment is almost complete and I am looking at submitting it hopefully in the next couple of days.



Aristotle. (350 B.C.E) Rhetoric.  Rhys Roberts, W. (Trans). Retrieved from http://classics.mit.edu/Aristotle/rhetoric.mb.txt

CQUniversity.  (2018).  Lesson 7: Genres of Speech – Media, e-course, Retrieved from https://moodle.cqu.edu.au/pluginfile.php/1301697/mod_resource/content/2/COMM12033_Week7_Mod.pdf

CQUniversity.  (2018a).  Lesson 9: Writing speech – script writing, e-courses, Retrieved from https://moodle.cqu.edu.au/pluginfile.php/1301750/mod_resource/content/1/COMM12033%20Week%209%20%E2%80%93%20Workbook.pdf

CQUniversity. (2018b). Week 9 – Workbook, e-courses, COMM12033 Speech and Script, Workbook activities, CQUniversity, Retrieved from https://moodle.cqu.edu.au/pluginfile.php/1301725/mod_resource/content/1/COMM12033%20Week%208%20%E2%80%93%20Workbook.pdf


Week eight – Writing Speech – Speech Writing

In week 8’s portfolio activity is an oral presentation which includes 12 slides which outlines the structure of the final speech assignment on a PowerPoint, (CQUniversity, 2018).


Reflection on this weeks activity.

The task of preparing a PowerPoint’s for this weeks activity, I feel that it was a fun exercise, however, it was excess and unnecessary as it did not really contribute to my learning this week I feel.

Though, I do understand that this unit covers various aspects of presentation of speech and script.  Therefore the PowerPoint presentation would be a useful document to use, when preparing and presenting a speech.  With prompts and key points highlighted on the slides.



CQUniversity.  (2018).  Lesson 8: Writing Speech – Speech Writing, e-courses, Retrieved from https://moodle.cqu.edu.au/pluginfile.php/1301724/mod_resource/content/2/COMM12033_Week8_Mod.pdf

CQUniversity.  (2018a). Week 8 – Workbook, e-courses, Retrieved from https://moodle.cqu.edu.au/pluginfile.php/1301725/mod_resource/content/1/COMM12033%20Week%208%20%E2%80%93%20Workbook.pdf

Linkedin. (2018).  AM COMMS Slideshare profile  [PowerPoint presentation].  Retrieved from https://www.slideshare.net/AMCOMMS1/maiden-speech-outlineweek-8amcomms

Week seven – Genres of Speech – Media

This week’s activity is looking at genres of speech, (CQUniversity, 2018).  More specifically, looking at a chat-base program televised on television.

The Project segment – Kylie Minogue @ 29:23

The Project, (2018), is a chat-based program genre.  The show is advertised as news done differently.    The way it differs to other news is that, The Project, (2018), comes across with a focus of humor, wit and banter between presenters and talent, (CQUniversity, 2018).

The presenters in this segment had Carrie Brickmore, Waleed Aly, Peter Helliar  and guest host Courtney Act and they collectively  interviewed Kylie Minogue.

Throughout the entire show segment the presenters used humor, wit and use of the transgression underlies talk which triggers laughter or controversy from the audience, (Ames, 2018).

Although, the most of the segment would be scripted and directed, with guidelines for the presenters to go by, the presenters come across naturally entertaining.  They were very confident, looked like they were having fun and enjoying their job.



PTC via iPhone…



Review the Clayman

Clayman’s article, (1990), I have to say was not the easiest of reads as in some parts I really had to focus on the article and found myself re-reading parts often to try to understand or decipher what they text was saying.  It was a wordy article and I felt took awhile to get to the point of a paragraph.

The article discusses the interactions between the content from a speech or interview which is then used for media releases or in a news story.  In the form of a sequence of talk or statements to suit the journalists story.

The article looks into how the statement is used in a news story, if it is used sparingly or not included at all.  Or how they determine what is important to use for a news story or news release (Clayman, 1990, p. 79).

Clayman (1990), looks further into how the actual statements or key points from a speech.  Determining the statements which are selected to be used in a news story, if they are paraphrased or are they the original authentic statement?

According to Clayman, (1990, p. 80), when a statement is paraphrased, there is the potential for it to be taken out of context.  If a message is articulated incorrectly, not clearly and is untrue, this can cause many issues including distrust.

When using the material from a speech or an interview, a journalist can interpret the situation or can influence how the speaker is portrayed in a news story (Clayman, 1990, pp. 81-85).   The journalist is in a powerful position where they are essentially a vehicle to communicate a message to a mass audience in the communication process, (Cenre et al, 2015). The message can influence the audience.

If a journalist shows the sequence of talk in a news story, rather than just key points or statements, this shows the audience the authentic speaker, with a display of their personality, “interactional conduct or demeanour,” (Clayman, 1990, p. 80).  This allows the audience to come to their own conclusions of the statement or key points of a speech.

Clayman, (1990) states, “spoken interaction are a useful analytic and methodological resource, with embedding practices constitute journalism fundamentals.”

This article, (Clayman, 1990), is relevant and has helpful points as mentioned, to consider when preparing to write a speech.  As the article highlights that if a speaker’s intentions of a speech is to influence, and to create a trust with the audience, it is essential to deliver the key points with accuracy and with truth.  This also ensures that the message when communication is delivered with consistency.



Cenre, P., Gill, R., Lawson, C., & Lewis, M. (2015).  Communication skills for business professionals.  Cambridge University Press.  Port Melbourne: VIC

Clayman, S. (1990). From talk to text: newspaper accounts of reporter-source interactions. Media Culture & Society, 12(1), 79-103. Retrieved from http://www.sscnet.ucla.edu/soc/faculty/clayman/Site/Publications_files/Clayman%201990%20Talk_to_Text.pdf

CQUniversity.  (2018).  Lesson 7: Genres of Speech – Media, e-course, Retrieved from https://moodle.cqu.edu.au/pluginfile.php/1301697/mod_resource/content/2/COMM12033_Week7_Mod.pdf

CQUniversity.  (2018a). Week 7 – Workbook, e-course, Retrieved from https://moodle.cqu.edu.au/pluginfile.php/1301698/mod_resource/content/2/COMM12033%20Week%207%20%E2%80%93%20Workbook.pdf

The Project.  (2018, 11 April).  Kylie Minogue [Video file].  Retrieved from https://tenplay.com.au/channel-ten/the-project/2018/4/11


Week six – Genres of Speech – Corporate

In this week’s activity, we are referring to the final assignment of this unit.  Which is a 2000-4000 word persuasive political speech, a maiden speech, as a State Government Member for an election, (CQUniversity, 2018).  Looking at preparing, drafting an outline, looking at the purpose of the speech and highlighting key points to included in the maiden speech.

According to Ames, (2018), the abbreviation of PAIBOC stands for purpose, audience, information, benefits, objections and context.  PAIBOC will be a road map as such when preparing the speech for the final assignment.

The purpose of the political speech is to persuasively influence the audience.  In this instance it is to influence the audience to vote.  Cenre et al, (2015,  p. 117), states that assertiveness in this instance can be a useful tool when articulating and expressing concepts, needs, action.  This can be done with knowing the target audience and delivering the speech with logical arguments and well balanced and ethical content.  Aristotle discusses,  emotions can have an effect in the process of persuasion in a speech, (Aristotle, 350 B.C.E.).  To either, create or dissolve an emotional connection with an audience during persuasive speech.

To address the audience with matters that require to be passed in parliament.  According to Ames, (2018), when delivering a speech about a certain issue, it is best to draw attention, be controversial and hook in the audience while raising the issue in the public domain, (Ames, 2018).   Also, to include why as the speaker you care about the speech and why the audience would care or otherwise?

For this instance, the final assignment maiden speech will firstly discuss why the MP is standing in this position to give some professional and personal perspective and to show why the MP cares.   This will impact on how the message will be received by the audience, (Ames, 2018).   Secondly, to highlight key current issues that are of concern to the MP and to the members of the community providing them with information.   Highlighting why they are issues and deliver with the intention to influence the vote.

The target audience for this speech is directed to members of parliament and government and political officials.  Other audience could include people who have an interested in politics, the people who are directly in the electorate area, campaign and MP supporters and anyone else who is interested in listening.

The purpose for a news release/story about the maiden speech is to officially put information out to media outlets which states key points addressed in the maiden speech.  This is for the media to obtain and use when writing their news stories.  The benefits of this gives publicity to the key issues that are in the electorate to be publicised and discussed within the community and to state what is being done about the issues if anything?

The information that needs to be relevant to the state government and relevant to the  associated electorate.  The speech will outline, an address to the MP’s audience, why they are standing for?  What they believe in, what the MP’s future aspirations to fulfill in the role?  What key points that the MP’s sees requires attention and why?  Ensure that the key issues are issues which the audience feels strongly and agree with.  Ensuring the topics relate to the audience.

Referring to the final assignment maiden speech, the key issues for the electorate in discussion are:

  • The need for more jobs in the region and to lower the unemployment rate statistics.
  • The urgent need to address youth crime in the region.
  • The Townsville Women’s Centre which requires urgent financial funding assistance.  The centre works closely with women and children who have been sexually assaulted or have been exposed to domestic violence.
  • To ensure economic security for the region.  By implementing the need to focus on stimulating the tourism and industry growth in the region.  This would have a significant affect on the local economy.


What information needs to be in the news release/story?

The information required in the news release in relation to the maiden speech, is basically a summary of all the important key points delivered in the speech.

  • Which include the 5 w’s and h.  Covering who, what, where, when, why and how.
  • The inverted pyramid following the sequence of most important to least important information outlined in the news release, (Whitaker et al, 2012).
  • The key highlights of the points mentioned in the speech.
  • Official comments from key speakers including their title.
  • Official government details and specific information that is released for publication.


One of the activities this week is to discuss the Main differences and similarities between a formal speech and an impromptu speech?

Firstly looking at formal speech.

According to Ames, (2018), the main objective of a political speech which is an example of formal speech, is to influence the vote.

Doing so by making the content of the speech relevant to the audience so they can connect, understand, approve of, and receive the message in the speech well, (Heritage & Clayman, 2010).

This comes with researching the topic as well, and delivering a formal speech which includes an introduction, body and conclusion.

With key points and issues which are addressed during the speech.

The content can include researched facts, figures and statistics, links to reports and government resources.

Examples of formal speech include media releases and a planned professional presentations which is delivered with intent, importance and purpose, (Ames, 2018).

On the other hand, impromptu speech is unplanned and unrehearsed.  Impromptu speech is similar to formal speech in that the speaker delivers a message to the audience.

However, the difference is that the message being delivered is on the spot, without preparation.

Being an impromptu speech, it is possible that the speaker may not know the topic well.

Therefore, they are unable to effectively connect well or influence their audience.

According to Ames, (2018), examples of impromptu speech can include “training, informal conversation or networking.”



Ames, K.  (2018). Lesson 6: Genres of Speech – Corporate, e-courses, Retrieved from https://moodle.cqu.edu.au/pluginfile.php/1301682/mod_resource/content/1/COMM12033_Week6_Mod.pdf

Ames, K.  (2016). PAIBOC Overview [Video file].  https://video.cqu.edu.au/ess/echo/presentation/42d50e29-5278-405e-9f1f-599669716646?showheading=true&firstname=Amanda&lastname=McRae&email=amanda.mcrae%40cqumail.com&instructor=true

Cenre, P., Gill, R., Lawson, C., & Lewis, M. (2015).  Communication skills for business professionals.  Cambridge University Press.  Port Melbourne: VIC

CQUniversity, (2018). Week 6 – Workbook, e-courses, COMM12033 Speech and script, Retrieved from https://moodle.cqu.edu.au/pluginfile.php/1301683/mod_resource/content/2/COMM12033%20Week%206%20%E2%80%93%20Workbook.pdf

Locker, K., & Kaczmarek, S. (2007).  Business communication: building critical
skills. 3rd edn, Toronto: McGraw-Hill.

Norrick, N. (2000). Conversational narrative: storytelling in everyday talk.
Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Co

Whitaker, W, R., Ramsey, J, E., & Smith, R, D. (2012). Media writing: print, broadcast, and public relations, 4th edn, Routledge, New York.

Week five – Institutional Talk

This week, institutional talk is the topic in focus.  Institutional talk is about the focus of how people talk, greet each other, (Ames, 2018).

Reflecting on how do I greet people, it depends on where I am at the time and who I am around really as it would vary slightly.

Being around people who I respect, have a lot of time for. in a professional setting,  at a meeting, socially or in a uni environment, I would generally greet people while passing them with “hi, hello or hey” with the person’s name following.

If I haven’t seen someone for awhile or genuinely care about a person, I would then say, how are you going?  Or how are you and how have you been?  Initiating engagement or conversation with a person, (Ames, 2018, p. 5).

If I am in public, if someone says hello, I would most likely reply and say hello back.  Again it depends on the circumstance of what I am doing at the time.

If I am greeting someone who I haven’t met before for a job, networking or a professional setting, I would greet the person, introduce myself and then continue on with the conversation.

How I sign off usually includes kind regards, thanks or cheers for an email.  I have a thing where I do not like saying bye or goodbye.  Rather, I like to say “thank you, see you, or see you later, or see you soon.”   I try to use the person’s name who I am speaking with at the time to sign off with as well.

In awkward situations depending what it is, I could react with silence, a change of subject, humor or if awkward situation is that bad, I would leave the room and do not acknowledge it?

However, there would be occasions where I would acknowledge the awkwardness and address it or respond in a way that would be appropriate, depending on the situation.

I am generally friendly towards people.  In a professional setting I am generally a little more reserved and prefer to observe more, talk less and take things in.


Institutional talk on a entertainment news segment. 

This weeks activity is looking at institutional talk looking at an entertainment news interview segment.  I chose a segment from The Project, the link is as follows:

Scottish stand up comedian, Daniel Sloss interview on The Project @ 12:50

The segment started with an introduction about the talent being interviewed. With their name, title and background of their career in a video clip.

Then the segment cuts on to the presenter and the talent in the studio at the desk.  With the presenter asking questions to the talent.   The questions were in relation to the introduction to the segment which was about the talent’s background on their career and relating to the talent’s comedic performances.

Some of the topics raised in the conversation are controversial, however, it is received and reciprocated with friendly professional banter between the two people, the talent and presenters on the project.

The talent was a comedian in this segment, therefor as it would be expected there was a lot of humor used throughout.  The presenters also regularly responded with humor.

If the controversy got to much or there was any sign of conflict, the conversation was redirected with another question to change the subject or a humorous harmless joke or comment was said to make the conversation light hearted.

The interview concluded with a presenter speaking into camera, directing the audience to a link to the comedian’s up and coming shows on The Projects links page.


Analysis of this weeks course resource.

The final activity for this week is to read an article and identify the key points which could assist, in contributing to assignment two, the maiden speech, (Ames, 2018).

Heritage & Clayman’s (2010), article is about the effectiveness of a speech.  There are several key points that would be useful to be aware of for the final maiden speech assignment.

Holding the audiences attention  when engaging without eye contact is difficult, (Heritage & Clayman, 2010, p. 243).  Having eye contact with the audience is essential when expressing a emotional, non-verbal communication and delivering a message through a speech.   As it creates a connection with individuals and audience as a whole.  It shows sincerity and inclusion that the speaker who is delivering the speech is talking to them and engaging with them in the conversation and in the communication process.

How an audience responds to a speech, can make or break it.  The effectiveness of a speech can be measured by the applause, if it was a success of not.  The applause from an audience can indicate and give affirmation to the speaker that their message has been received, approved and understood effectively by the audience, (Heritage & Clayman, 2010, p. 276).

Furthermore, according to Heritage & Clayman, (2010, p.263), if the speaker is frequently looking at their audience, they can gauge how the audience is responding to what they are saying from their body language and reaction.

Previous historic speeches that have a reputation of being convicted well, have included relevant information and knowledge about certain topics in the speech content.  This shows sincerity, builds trust in a speaker, influence an audience and creates a connection with the audience because they can relate to the message, (Heritage and Clayman, 2010, p. 264).

The use of contrast in speech was mentioned in the reading which consists of both negative and positive statements on a subject.  This can draw in the audience in to having a reaction which engages them into listening or participating in the speech (Heritage & Clayman, 2010, pp. 267-269).

When preparing a speech it is often broken down into three sections or topics of discussion.  This ensures ample time to cover all topics in great discussion, while keeping the audiences attention with the speech not being to long that they loose interest or get distracted, (Heritage & Clayman, 2010, p. 269)

Heritage & Clayman, (2010, p. 271), states that puzzle-solution is an important format to have in a speech.  Puzzle-solution is about creating curiosity and interest in a puzzle with the audience initially during a speech, then delivering the solution to follow.  It allows the audience to participate in the speech, and hold their interest and attention in the speech very early on.

Combination of all above these key point aspects would be very helpful and useful to include in the maiden speech assignment.  This article was an interesting read, in that it really breaks down a speech discusses how to make a speech most effective.



Ames, K.  (2018).  Week five – Institutional talk, e-courses.  Retrieved from https://moodle.cqu.edu.au/pluginfile.php/1299023/mod_resource/content/1/COMM12033_Week5_Mod.pdf

Heritage, J., & Clayman, S.  (2010)  Talk in Action,  Retrieved from http://library-resources.cqu.edu.au/cro/protected/comm12033/comm12033_cro7870.pdf

The Project.  (2018, Mar 12).  Television segment [Video file].  Retrieved from https://tenplay.com.au/channel-ten/the-project/2018/3/12

Week four – Performance

According to Ames, (2018), to make improvements on public speaking, is to practice.  Focusing on “physical elements of speech communication and improving confidence,” said Ames, (2018).

This is exactly how I feel about my recording of the news script.  The more you have an opportunity to practice, the more I feel that you get use to it, improve and feel more confident and sound professional.

When re-recording the new voice over of the news script the second time around, I was in a smaller room which I think effected the acoustics and sound.

I found myself over thinking the voicing more and I tended to go over the script a lot more this time round.

While recording the voice over this week, my intention was to voice at a slower pace, while ensuring that I articulated and pronounced each word, maintained consistent expression and emphasis on key words.  I believe, I managed to achieve this.

Outside the room where I was recording the voice over this time round, there were people walking past where they could likely hear me recording my voice over.  Ha.  This was a little distracting.   I went for a walk to get a drink to refresh and recorded the voice over again from the top.  This helped and finally, I finished the voice over.


Film review on The King’s Speech, (Hooper, 2010).


The King’s Speech movie showed, the King George V character as a leader, impaired, struggling to speak fluently and get his words out when having a conversation or speaking during a speech.  With awkward pauses, frequent stuttering and stammer.  As the movie progresses, the King undertakes speech therapy lessons privately with  intentions to improve his speech, (Hooper, 2010).

The importance of performance in any speech is essential.  When you relate performing a speech as a King, someone with a significantly important role with great responsibilities.  Delivering his speech to the people would be considered to be one of the most important jobs in that role.


There were a few techniques in the movie during the lessons between the Speech Therapist and the King.  Including reading, pronunciation and projection exercises, articulating tongue twisters, vowel exercises, breathing exercises and listening to voice recordings, (Hooper, 2010).

Another interesting technique, the King had to listen to loud music with headphones, while reading a book out loud and being recorded.  The out come of that was surprising, where the King’s voice recording was spoken fluently without any stutters, (Hooper, 2010).

Altering voice techniques that can impact on professional speech.

Being assertive and aware of voice techniques can assist someone to articulate their words to deliver their speech with an impact.  Taking control of your voice can contribute to the overall success of any speaking presentation, conversation or speech, (Piazza, 2009).

According to Ames, (2018a), some of the elements which can attribute in making an impact in a speech can include breathing correctly, volume levels and projection.  If the facial muscles are relaxed and flexible, the use of good posture which effects breathing.  And deliver the speech to the audience with emotion and gesture showing an authentic sense of energy and enthusiasm.

If a speaker can calm their nerves and relax with a deep breath this can prevent the high pitch, fast pace speaking and can contribute to better professional speech, (Piazza, 2009).



Ames, K. (2018). Week 4 – Performance, CQUniversity e-courses, Retrieved from https://moodle.cqu.edu.au/pluginfile.php/1296976/mod_resource/content/1/COMM12033_Week4_Mod.pdf

Ames, K.  (2018a).  Week 4 – Speech study guide, CQUniversity e-courses, Retrieved from https://moodle.cqu.edu.au/pluginfile.php/1206327/mod_resource/content/9/COMM12033_Week2_Mod.pdf

Hooper, T.  (2010).  The King’s Speech [Video file].  Retrieved from SBS OnDemand https://www.sbs.com.au/ondemand/video/1153256515974/the-kings-speech 

Piazza, F. (2009).   How to improve your voice [Video file].  Retrieved from YouTube https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sAjKfL-upvo&feature=related


Week three – Aristotle Rhetoric

Reflect on ‘rhetoric’:

Learning about rhetoric has been interesting.  To really understand what rhetoric was, I not only read through the Aristotle’s books I, II and III (Aristotle, 350 B.C.E.), I researched other materials to get a good grasp of it.  Rhetoric is

Reading Aristotle’s books  (Aristotle, 350 B.C.E.) was something that you had to really try and focus on, as it was written with a lot of uncommon words, meanings and terms.    It is not something I would read normally, however, in this instance for this Speech and Script unit in a professional communications degree, it is very relevant and appropriate.

Being aware of what rhetoric is now, it has become very obvious in everyday life.  Where I am finding myself seeing in practice in communication everywhere.


What are some of the key points Aristotle makes about rhetorical speech?

Preparing for a speech there are key points to consider. Including the topic, key argument points of the speech, who the audience is and what they want to hear.  Language, style of speech, how it is arranged, and how to persuade the audience effectively during the speech, (Aristotle, 350 B.C.E.).

Looking at persuasion in particular.  Rhetoric is universally used throughout all disciplines and it is essentially a tool to use to to persuade when communicating, (Aristotle, 350 B.C.E.).

Creating a connection with people through topics of interest in speeches can impact on how people are persuaded or influenced.  When preparing a speech for an audience, it is essential to understand who the audience is. Considering if the audience is educated, the generation, age, their background or religious views for an example. Research facts, what directly effects or interests the audience has, which can be included in the speech, for the messages to be successfully received by the audience.  The audience can ultimately determine the outcome decision and result of a speech.

Aristotle (350 B.C.E. n.p.) states, “the most important and effective qualification for success in persuading audiences and speaking well on public affairs is to understand them and their interests.”  If the audience (pathos) can see that the speaker understands and demonstrates he knows what he is talking about during the speech in an ethical argument, that creates a trust (ethos) which can persuade the audience.  Further to that, “good sense, good moral character and good will,” creates confidence in the speaker, according to Aristotle (350 B.C.E. n.p.).

(Slide Team, 2018)

Aristotle also discusses that emotions can have an effect in the process of persuasion in a speech (Aristotle, 350 B.C.E.).  To either, create or dissolve an emotional connection with an audience during persuasive speech.


Key argument points of a speech, which is supported with evidence and fact, forms the basis of the message (logos) which is delivered to the audience (University of Pittsburgh, 2007).   Aristotle goes into great detail explaining various examples of arguments for different situations including ceremonial speeches and political speeches, where the use of enthymemes and maxims should be implemented (Aristotle, 350 B.C.E. n.p.).

(Lera Blog, 2018)

The term maxim is mentioned in Aristotle’s book II (Aristotle, 350 B.C.E. n.p).  It is said that maxims should be incorporated into a speech by only people who have experienced the story who tell it with truth.    If the maxims are reliable then this will be perceived by the audience that the speaker is reliable and of moral character, which creates a connection an audience or with an individual (Aristotle, 350 B.C.E. n.p).

In summary, Aristotle goes in great detail on many key points about rhetorical speech in the three books.  All of which would be very helpful for anyone preparing an important speech for an audience.

2. Consider your own use of rhetoric: Reflect on an example of argument in your own life, one in which you were successful in persuading someone else of something.

Notes of my example of rhetoric situation.

Unaware to a lot of people, rhetoric is commonly used in conversations and communication every day throughout the world. 

An example of a situation where I used rhetoric was a morning where I felt like getting out and going for a walk. 

Sometimes there are days where you do not feel like exercising. 

Where you would rather, stay home, curl up on the couch and watch a movie right?

On this Sunday early morning, the weather was lovely and I just wanted to get out and go for a walk. 

I spent an hour trying to convince my teenage daughter to come with me.   

However, she does need to some motivation to get started. 

Being aware of rhetoric, I mentioned a few things we were going to do, while out and about.   

Aristole (350 B.C.E. n.p.) states “the most important and effective qualification of success in persuading audiences is to speak well on public affairs that interests them.”

Luckily being my daughter we have similar likes.  I highlighted it is a beautiful day and we will see the ocean along the walking path, breathe in some fresh air, look at the scenery and you will feel better for it afterwards after a little walk. 

She was hesitant and still not sold on the idea. 

I told her that it will be nice, we can go and relax at the café at the beach afterwards and have a cold drink, and Ill grab a coffee.  She then decided that she would come with me.

The outcome was that we had a nice morning out, to go out and get some exercise, go to see the beach, ocean and scenery.  Saw a turtle pop its head up, a couple of yachts on the water, and enjoy a drink at the café on the beach.  Rather than for her, staying home watching TV or not doing much.  

In this example, in everyday conversation in a family environment, rhetoric was used.  Used in a way to persuade my teenage daughter to come out for a walk with her mum.   I did not change the way I communicate or say anything different that I usually would when trying to persuade her to come with me.  The difference is that as I have learnt about rhetoric, I am more mindful and aware of it now in everyday conversations. 


3. Review an argument: Watch In Defense of Rhetoric: No Longer Just for Liars

This YouTube video (Clemson University, 2011) was about Rhetoric.  Which included a collective discussion between university representatives and scholars, who analysed the definition of rhetoric, epistemic rhetoric and the rhetoric triangle.

According to Clemson University, (2011), the meaning of rhetoric is often misunderstood, with it supposedly being ‘related’ to trickery, however, this is not the case.  Rhetoric, is an ancient art that can be useful in effective communication.

With several descriptions discussed in the video about what rhetoric is, they all lead to a similar conclusion.  Rhetoric being, “the art of persuasion in effective communication,” said Clemson University (2011).

Rhetoric is present in everyday conversation and communication.  Through uses of language, expression, emotion, gestures to create an emotion connection or to share a point of view and opinion from experience, (Clemson University, 2011).

When looking at epistemic rhetoric in communication, it is based on fact, knowledge (Clemson University, 2011).  This contributes to informed decisions.  Clemson University, (2011), said “understanding workings of epistemic rhetoric is best defense.”  This is when a message is delivered with with intent,  knowledge, actual fact, truth and credibility, (Ames, 2018). 

The video highlights the rhetoric triangle which is used in effective communication. It consists of logos (message), pathos (audience) and ethos (communicator), (Clemson University, 2011).

Being aware of rhetoric when communicating a message (logos), can directly contribute to communicating the message across effectively.  Considering if the message is clear, if it is supported with evidence and if it is reasonable?

Pathos (audience) from a rhetoric perspective concentrates on if the message makes an emotional connection with the audience.

Ethos (communicator) is about the person delivering the message (Clemson University, 2011).  Is the communicator trustworthy, is a credible source, or is the message bias?

In summary, the communicator can influence or persuade their audience through their message when using rhetoric.  Or in best cases epistemic rhetoric following the rhetoric triangle to communicate effectively.




Aristotle. (350 B.C.E) Rhetoric.  Rhys Roberts, W. (Trans). Retrieved from http://classics.mit.edu/Aristotle/rhetoric.mb.txt

Clemson University. (2011).  In Defense of Rhetoric [Video file]. Retrieved from Clemson University  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BYMUCz9bHAs&feature=youtu.be&hd=1

CQUniversity (2018). COMM12003-Speech and script: Study guide.  Rockhampton, QLD:  CQUniversity Australia.

Lera Blog.  (2018).  The best man speech advice [Image].  Retrieved from https://lerablog.org/business/marketing-business/communication/the-best-man-speech-advice/

Slide Team.  (2018).  Persuasive presentations: Aristotle shows the way [Image].  Retrieved from https://www.slideteam.net/blog/persuasive-presentations-ethos-pathos-logos-aristotle-shows-the-way/

University of Pittsburgh. (2007).  Argument: The basics.  Retrieved from http://www.speaking.pitt.edu/student/argument/argumentbasics.html

Week two – What makes a speech great?

(Prosser, 2018)

Define a ‘Professional Voice’

According to Ames, (2018, p.2), a professional voice could be considered as “speaking with an educated tone.”  A formal way of speaking.

Someone who may have had training to develop their speech sound and articulation to deliver their voice at a professional standard.

A professional voice could be considered as projecting speech confidently, with the use of varied tones, pitch, pace and influence to convey a message.

When previous American president Barack Obama made his speeches, he used a professional voice.  Articulated his words with confidence, intent, pace and influence (Thker, 2012).

In Barrack Obama’s first speech, you can see that he comes across nervous, speaking quickly and generally just say his speech in a professional speaking voice (Thker, 2012).

However, over time throughout his career, Barracks professional voice changes.  Where Barrack demonstrates speaking with passion, intent, expression, pause and pace, (The New York Times, 2017).

Professional voice can be interpreted as someone who may have had training to develop their speaking, speech delivery to a professional standard.

In the movie My Fair Lady made in 1964 was about the character Professor Higgins who trains Aliza on how to speak correctly, how to pronounce her words and use professional voice (Doutreleau, 2012).

Voice can be defined as, the speech sound that comes out through the mouth to communicate (Ames, 2018, p. 4).

The professional aspect can come from an educated person who has learnt the skills and techniques to use their voice in a professional capacity.

A voice can define how we communicate a message to the listener?

(Prosser, 2018)
(Prosser, 2018)

According to WatchMojo.com, (2015, n.p.) a “great speech can inspire, motivate and influence.”

Speeches need to create a connection with the audience, mean something to them, (Ames, 2018).

A great speech can effectively communicate a message to an audience successfully, verbally and physically through sound, words, emotion, tone, pitch and style, (Ames, 2015, p.1)

Overall, professional voice presentation can be possible combination of “charismatic leaders, vision, content and delivery of speech?” (Ames, 2015, p.3)

Referring to previous president Barrack Obama’s speech, the entire speech he connected and engaged with the audience, (The Obama White House, 2013).

Throughout the speech he used constant eye contact, emotion, pause, tone, volume, pace and a professional voice.  In the actual content of the speech, he brought in actual stories of experience to tell his story and get the message across in his speech.

Martin Luther King’s Jr’s speech, I have a dream, had a lot of expression and story telling of actual experience, (Gokadza, 2013).

One of the main reasons why this speech was effective, was the way that Martin Luther King Jr. engaged and worked the audience.  Connecting to the audience with content that was relevant and well received by the audience.

One of the tasks for this week’s activity, (CQUniversity, 2018), is to highlight the emphasized words on the script when listening to the news read recording by news reader Kate Stowell.

The outcome of this activity was that basically the key works of each sentence was emphasized, which ended up being every third or fourth word.  Though this also varied depending on the nature of the topic and key words in each sentence.

The features of the recording verses my recording is the professionalism.  As you can hear that the Kate Stowell’s voice is very rehearse or experienced.  Where as my voice over, the more I do voice overs, I would hope that it would get better and sound professional.


Ames, K. (2018).  COMM12033 Speech and script: week 1 : An introduction to speech and script.  Rockhampton, QLD: CQUniveristy Australia.

Ames, K. (2018).  COMM12033 Speech and script: week 2: Perspectives on speech.  Rockhampton, QLD: CQUniversity Australia.   Retrieved from https://moodle.cqu.edu.au/pluginfile.php/1206327/mod_resource/content/9/COMM12033_Week2_Mod.pdf

Cenere, P., Gill, R., Lawson, C., & Lewis, M. (2015). Communication skills for business professionals. Port Melbourne, Australia: Cambridge University Press

CQUniversity. (2018).  COMM12033: Week 1 – News read.  Rockhampton, QLD: CQUniversity Australia. Retrieved from https://moodle.cqu.edu.au/pluginfile.php/1206322/mod_resource/content/5/News%20Read%20Script_SBS.pdf

Doutreleau, F. (2012).  My Fair Lady Pronunciation [Video file].  Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MJr9SSJKkII

Gokadza, I.  (2103).  Martin Luther King, Jr.  I have a dream speech. [Video file].  Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3vDWWy4CMhE

Prosser, P.  (2018).  Sally Prosser profile  [Image]  Retrieved from https://www.instagram.com/sallyprosservoice/

Smith, N. (2013).  One Speech.  Rockhampton, QLD: CQUniversity Australia.  Retrieved from https://library-resources.cqu.edu.au/cro/protected/comm12033/comm12033_cro8674.pdf

Speechwriter. (2011). 5 Steps to a successful speech – Part 1.  Retrieved from http://thespeechwriter.typepad.com/onspeechwriting/2011/12/5-steps-to-a-successful-speech-part-1.html

Stowell, K. (2010).  News reading sample.  SBS World News Australia [Video file].  Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6-qKDbNz2YI

The Lawyer. (2007).  Careers: Using your voice as a business tool.  Centaur Communications Limited.  Retrieved from https://global.factiva.com/ga/default.aspx

Thker. (2012).  The Speech that made Obama president [Video file].  Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OFPwDe22CoY

The Obama White House. (2013).  President Obama speaks on Trayvon Martin. [Video file].  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MHBdZWbncXI#t=51

The New York Times.  (2018).  The best speeches of Obama’s presidency.  [Video file].  Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/video/us/politics/100000004862084/best-speeches-of-barack-obamas-presidency.html?ref=oembed

WatchMojo.com (2015). 10 Famous speeches,  [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0VegIvb1e7s

Virgil. A. (1977).  Training the speaking voice. 3rd ed. https://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/cqu/reader.action?docID=273311&query=

Week one – The importance of voice

This week’s first activity is to listen to two Youtube video’s about Julia Gillard’s voice in the first video, and about the delivery and content of the second video.  Then discuss my opinion (Ames, 2018).

Video one:

After listening to the audio recording, it left me thinking more about how people perceive things differently about what is a good speech for them? Considering my opinion verses a voice coach professional’s opinion.

The delivery of the speech was executed well and held my interest which influenced me to engage and listen.  Julia Gillard’s voice is unique and is easily recognised.   As a New Zealand born lady, she has a New Zealand accent, which among Australians it does also stand on.

I thought Julia delivered of her speech in this interview with articulation, with the use of clear diction pronunciation and expression.  In a warm and friend professional tone at a good volume level to get her messages across, (Cenre, 2015).

Professional voice coach Lucy Cornell had different opinion to me.  Saying, Julia’s voice did not come across warm, friendly or feminine, (Voice Coach Global, 2019)?

The subject matter content of the speech in this example, was irrelevant to me when looking at the voice speech perspective.   As I was focusing on the actual voice delivery techniques that Julia used as she delivered her speech.

This activity outlined to me, that there is much more depth to ‘voice’ when delivering a speech or interview.    As to what makes a good speech delivery good or not, other than just the points you see on the surface.

Video two:

The ‘Misogyny’ speech – my reaction to this speech and how I was influenced by the delivery or content? 

My first thoughts of this speech, it was a passionate and powerful speech made from Julia Gillard.  Delivered with strength, intent, courage, focus, clear diction, expression, and confidence.  Julia engaged with the audience with regular eye contact and pauses. (Plavetich, 1992, n.p.).

In the nature of the topic and the situation, it had to be.  It did have an influence on me, in that I was interested in listening, hearing what she had to say about the content and admired the way she was standing up for women’s rights in a very controversial topic.

While I personally do not like to get into listening to the he say, she say, aspects of the speech.  I do appreciate, in this instance seeing Julia as an professional example for women, speaking with strength, keeping focused on delivering the speech the entire time, even with the distractions.

iii. Would your views be influenced if Gillard sounded different (like actress Cate Blanchett, for example)?

The answer to this question would be no, changing Julia’s voice would not change my views or influence.  From an holistic perspective, delivering a speech well is  about the actual speech content, the articulation and the delivery.

Julia Gillard’s voice is distinct and unique, which does add to the impact of the delivery in her speeches.  Coming across being well prepare and genuine creating a sense of trust in what is said and natural influence of engagement.

This weeks second task was to record a voice over for a radio SBS news script which is  below via a SoundClound link:

It was an interesting task to listen back to the recorded voice over of the news bulletin.  Looking for areas of where I could improve.

I found, trying to articulate the text initially without getting tongue-tied was challenging.  With also trying not to create any awkward pauses.  The more I read the text, the easier it was to articulate the words.  There are area’s in this voice over recording where there are a couple of awkward changes in the voice over created while recording and editing.

When I spoke, I was mindful to speak with purpose, confidence, in a serious but warm tone, noting that the news bulletin being read is covering breaking news topics about politics, finance and a natural disaster.

For this example, I used expression and an upbeat pace to differentiate between topics, speakers, paragraphs in the news bulletin voice over.

Overall, I do feel the voice over recorded was good as it included the expression, the tones, it was paced with articulation and pronunciation.  Doing it again, I would just practice a few times reading the script out loud until the words flowed better and would also work on the pronunciation while articulating the script.



ABC News.  (2012).  Julia Gillard’s misogyny speech in full [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ihd7ofrwQX0

Ames, K.  (2018).  Week 1 – Workbook, COMM12033 Speech and script. CQUniversity e-courses, Retrieved from https://moodle.cqu.edu.au/pluginfile.php/1206321/mod_resource/content/6/COMM12033%20Week%201%20%E2%80%93%20Workbook.pdf

Cenere, P., Gill, R., Lawson, C., & Lewis, M. (2015). Communication skills for business professionals. Port Melbourne, Australia: Cambridge University Press

The monthly media. (2015).  My story: Julia Gillard in conversation, Adelaide writers week 2015 [Video file].  Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0Kf_oFYUUMw

Plavetich, R., & Kleiner, B. (1992).  How to be an effective public speaker.  Training and development.  Retrieved from http://go.galegroup.com/ps/retrieve.do?tabID=T002&resultListType=RESULT_LIST&searchResultsType=SingleTab&searchType=AdvancedSearchForm&currentPosition=1&docId=GALE%7CA13769254&docType=Article&sort=RELEVANCE&contentSegment=&prodId=AONE&contentSet=GALE%7CA13769254&searchId=R1&userGroupName=cqu&inPS=true

Voice Coach Global. (2010).  Julia Gillard’s Voice  [Video file]. Retrieved from