Economy Matters

COMM11008 – Blog Three
By Amanda McRae

The Gladstone region, known, to be where major industry of Australia resides, is experiencing the flow on effects of the current economic downturn.  From the recent boom made up of several, new major, and large, world-class industry projects commissioned and constructed simultaneously. There have been great benefits to the region because of boom.  As the town resets, however, Member for Flynn, Mr Ken O’Dowd said, “we are coming off a high and moving towards a very low  low,” (Hansard 2016d, p. 117).

Figure 1: Member for Flynn Ken O’Dowd in Parliament.  Source: Hansard (2016e)

In parliament, O’Dowd (Hansard 2016d, p. 117) stated, many businesses have been hit hard.  Unable to pay staff, businesses are in receivership after decades of being in business.   People left without work, large debts from assets that they can’t pay off and families are struggling.  Not to mention the extent of the many houses, units and businesses left vacant for over a year.

One of many business owners, Ms Helen Neil closed the doors of an iconic furniture warehouse after eight years.  Ms Neil said, “people just don’t have any money at the moment, you don’t expect the town to die this much,” (Mortimer 2016a, n.p).

The business is holding a closing down sale with 50-70% off stock.
Figure 2: Simply Solid Timber Furniture business.  Source:  The Gladstone Observer (2016a)
Source: The Gladstone Observer (2016b)

Prime Minister Malcolm Turnball acknowledges, “we know Australians are facing tough challenges in managing their household budgets,” (Hansard 2016b, p. 44).

“We have seen a big lift-up in mining construction investment and then a decline, and that was always going to happen,” said the Prime Minister (Hansard 2016c, p. 53).

Figure 3:  Prime Minsiter Malcolm Turnbull during question time in parliment  Source: AFR (2016)

“My government is providing the clear economic leadership Australia needs to remain a prosperous and secure First World economy,” said Turnbull, (Hansard 2016a, p. 70).

Mr Ken O’Dowd reiterated the current situation in the Gladstone region in parliament. “While the nation’s economy continues to grow strongly, many in Central Queensland are doing it tough,” (Hansard 2016d, p. 117).

Some businesses seeing the downturn as a challenge, an opportunity to reset, plan, start, renovate and get strategic with innovation. Particularly with “Advanced QLD” innovation initiative.

Stimulating the economy with the injection of funds and creating new jobs is crucial for the region.  Further new projects announced due to start construction in near future:

  • $42m Gladstone Hospital upgrade  – to start mid-2017 (Palaszczuk 2016).
  • $16m Southern Oil Refinery, an advanced bio-fuels pilot plant (Gillie 2016a, n.p).
  • $10m CQUniversity’s Gladstone Marina campus upgrade (Hansard 2016d, p. 117).
  • New retail shops (Gillie 2016b, n.p).
  • $950m Hummock Hill Tourist Development (Gillie 2016c)
  • Tourism boost through P&O Ships
  • $17m marine terminal (Mortimer 2016b)

The community remains resilient and positive.  It does raise questions, however, learning from the last boom, what will be done to prevent this from happening again locally in the future?  How do you soften the brunt next time?  Only time will tell, however, it is good to see the local Federal and State members addressing the downturn in parliament and progressing further on new projects.


AFR 2016, Image: Malcolm Turnbull, viewed 20 September 2016,×350.gka5lx.png/1444899997418.jpg

Enoch, L 2016, Leeanne Enoch MP, Twitter, viewed 20 September 2016,

Gillie, C 2016a, New industry gets state tick approval, The Gladstone Observer, view 20 September 2016,

Gillie, C 2016b, Two new restaurants for Stockland Gladstone, The Gladstone Observer, viewed 20 September 2016,

Gillie, C 2016c, Govt approves Hummock Hill Island tourism development, The Gladstone Observer 2016,

Hansard 2016a, Australia, House of Representatives 2016, Questions without notice: Economy,  Debates, 15 September, pp. 70, viewed 20 September 2016,;query=Id%3A%22chamber%2Fhansardr%2F9de5f081-9ccf-4f72-a05a-02462c1f3a0c%2F0101%22

Hansard 2016b, Australia, House of Representatives 2016, Questions without notice: Economy, Debates, 14 September, pp. 44, viewed 20 September 2016,;query=Id%3A%22chamber%2Fhansardr%2Fbf6692fe-063a-41a2-9ebb-5de513f31940%2F0113%22

Hansard 2016c, Australia, House of Representatives 2016,  Question without notice: Economic, Debates, 12 September, pp. 53, viewed 20 September 2016,;query=Id%3A%22chamber%2Fhansardr%2Fd961ab05-d592-46b4-8a71-e41c76b2d8ae%2F0143%22

Hansard 2016d, Australia, House of Representatives 2016, Federation Chamber – Constituency Statements – Flynn Electorate: economy, Debates, 14 September, pp. 117, viewed 20 September 2016,;query=Id%3A%22chamber%2Fhansardr%2Fbf6692fe-063a-41a2-9ebb-5de513f31940%2F0215%22

Hansard 2016e, Image: Ken O’Dowd, Australia, House of Representatives 2016, Federation Chamber – Constituency Statements – Flynn Electorate: economy, Debates, 14 September, video, viewed 20 September 2016,

Mortimer, J 2016, Two iconic Gladstone Businesses close their doors, The Gladstone Observer, viewed 20 September 2016,

Mortimer, j 2016, Market opens as Gladstone sellers drop prices to force a sale, The Gladstone Observer, viewed 22 September 2016,

Palaszcuk, A 2016, Annastacia Palaszczuk MP, Twitter, viewed 11 August 2016,

The Gladstone Observer 2016, Image: Furniture warehouse, viewed 20 September 2016,

The Gladstone Observer 2016, Image: business, Gladstone workers in uncertain future as sale ‘deadline’ nears, viewed 23 September 2016,


Week 12 – Review week

Week 12
By Amanda McRae

At the beginning of the course, I wanted to learn how to blog but didn’t know how to?  When starting the course, it looked daunting and overwhelming probably because of the workload and that I wasn’t familiar with the WordPress interface and knowing I had three  other subjects to do while studying full-time this semester.  However, this quickly passed and it was actually an aspect that pushed me, challenged me and is what I enjoyed about the course.  I am feeling a lot more confident in writing.  Looking back at the last 12 weeks, it has been a great course and I have enjoyed it immensely.

For many reasons more than one, I have learnt so much.  Something I have always wanted to do, I am a now blogger.   I appreciate learning how using Twitter is used frequently for media professionals to keep in touch with networks, where breaking news is found and it is a great place to keep in the loop of what is trending at the time.  Twitter really makes you feel that instant connection to breaking news, events, people and professionals from all around the world, and I really enjoy that aspect.

Storify is very new to me and before this course, I never heard it before.  It was an interesting social media interface to learn, and I actually really liked the timing of when we used it for this course which was when the Olympics was on this year.  A moment in history and a great time for Australia and the amazing talented athletes, it was great to see the stories unfold on Storify.

There are so many other aspects I have found interesting about this course.  Learning how to write for sensitive news stories, also the opportunity learning the ins and outs of media releases which I have always read regularly in media and communication roles.

The weekly quizzes have been so helpful, as I have learnt where I need to improve and what to get right. The textbook is a great source of information, as it hones in on verbs, grammar, spelling, quoting and so much more (Hicks 2013).

This course is well structured and organised which is a tribute to the course coordinator, Kate Ames.  Also, the regular interaction with fellow students with the reviews, Kate, and feedback from our markers has been great to have coming from a distant student perspective when sometimes you can feel isolated.

It has been a lot of fun, I have enjoyed the ride.  With this course and my other Comms course this semester, it affirms for me that I want to continue to complete the Bachelor of Professional Communication, Majoring in Journalism to add to my current skill set.

As Ames (2016) mentioned the things which are key to take away from this course is, keep it simple, always read your work aloud, and let the story tell itself.


Ames K, 2016,Week 12 – review week, Central Queensland University, viewed 21 October 2016, file:///C:/Users/Amanda/Desktop/Uni/2016%20COMM11007%20Week%2012%20Lesson.pdf

Hicks, W 2013, English for journalists: twentieth-anniversary edition, Routledge, Abingdon, Oxon.


Reviewing your work

Week 11
By Amanda McRae

This week’s inquiry (Ames 2016, p.1) is to read and review this article:

 “Woman stuck under train at Eagle Junction Train Station, Brisbane,” (O’Brien 2014)

What are the problems with the article?

The content of the first three sentences is basically the same with different wording and is repeated unnecessarily.

Sentence 1

  • …stuck under a train
  • …at a railway station in Brisbane

Sentence 2

  • …free woman under a train
  • …on Brisbane’s north side

Sentence 3

  • …was caught under the train
  • …at Eagle Junction railway station

The article feels confused, repetitive and not confident.

The inverted pyramid including the 5 w’s and h in the first couple of sentences was not covered.

Does it meet the guidelines for reporting self-harm?

Refer to Reporting suicide guidelines link

According to Mind Frame (2016, n.p), it is important to report appropriately when discussing this subject for various reasons such as to minimise harm, copycat, and reduce the stigma and discrimination.

The train article discussed I don’t believe meets the reporting guidelines.  The article mentions to much detail about the situation and it also states the incident was self-harm and then went on stating how and where it happened. This could potentially influence others somewhat creating the copycat behaviour.  While it is important to speak about the issue to reduce the stigma and discrimination as this activity has pointed out, it is a very sensitive subject to report on. I appreciate that it has been included in the course discussion.

Practical –  rewrite the article

A woman believed to be in her 30’s has been sent to the Royal Brisbane Hospital in serious condition, after an incident at a northside Brisbane railway station.

Emergency services were called to the incident just after 12pm on Wednesday with reports of a woman who became stuck under a train.

Four fire crews rescued the woman, freeing her at 12.55pm, conscious and with lower leg injuries.

The incident unfolded with a train full of people on the platform, a witness said.

Commuters on the Airport and Doomben train line experienced delays of just under an hour affecting the train schedule flows.

Queensland police are treating this incident as not suspicious.

For help with emotional difficulties, contact Lifeline on 13 11 14

For help with depression, contact Beyond Blue on 1300 22 46 36

The SANE Helpline is 1800 18 SANE (7263)

Technical – Quiz 11

For this week, the textbook was an interesting read, Hicks (2016, p.   ).

The results of this week’s quiz were ok, after second go I got 100%.


Ames, K 2016, Week 11 – Blog, Moodle, Central Queensland University, viewed 19 September 2016,

Hicks, W 2013, English for journalists:twentieth-anniversary editions, Routledge, Abingdon. Oxon.

Mind Frame, Reporting suicide guidelines, viewed 19 September 2016,

O’Brien, C 2014, Woman struck under train at eagle junction train station, Courier Mail. viewed 19 September 2016,

Addressing climate change; locally, nationally and globally.

COMM11008 – Blog Two
By Amanda McRae

The consequences of Climate change globally is a huge challenge for governments around the world. Effecting areas of economic, political, and social (Jones 2013, p.2) contributing to billions of dollars in economic losses globally. As scientists predicted, seeing an increase in disease, famine (Jones 2013, p. 1-2), sea level rises, extreme weather events (Cohen 2016), infrastructure damage, erosion, and loss or disruption of life.

United States of America President Barack Obama, a world leader in addressing climate change (Chavar 2016, n.p), reads  documentation, charts, and graphs of a morning,  he said, “it’s terrifying.”  Obama continued, “okay, we really got to get on to this, we really got to pay attention to this,” (Chavar 2016, n.p).   Watch Obama on Climate Change video further via this link.

Locally, the Council is currently focusing on one of the areas damaged from major weather events. With an additional $300,000 of crucial funding to contribute to the erosion at Wild cattle creek (GRC 2016b, p. 1).

Figure 1: Wild Cattle Creek.  Source:  The Gladstone Observer (2016)
Figure 2: Millennium Esplanade Beach Erosion.  Source:  The Gladstone Observer (2016)

Boyne Island resident with a house on the shoreline, Kevin Blessington, hopes from the Gladstone Regional Council plans, there will be improvements made in the area’s safety and usability (Annett 2014). “Erosion will always happen when you have excessive weather activities but all you can do is try to prevent damage,” he said (Annett 2014, n.p).

Figure 3: Boyne River mouth, Boyne Island.  Source:  The Gladstone Observer (2014)

Australian Minister for Science, Mr Greg Hunt said, “The Turnball’s new government’s stance regarding climate science, is it’s important, significant and critical to Australia’s long-term planning,” (SBS 2016, n.p), as Climate change is addressed.

Figure 4:  Prime Minister Malcolm Turnball  Source: Daily Telegraph (2016)

Among several proposals regarding climate change, Prime Minister Malcolm Turnball announced, a $300 million dollar investment for the pacific to assist, (ABC24 & Shepard 2016).

The Australian Minister for Foreign Affairs, Ms Julie Bishop addressed Australia’s situation in parliament. Ms Bishop said, “our 2030 target of reducing Australia’s contribution to global emissions is by 26 to 28 percent from 2015 levels,” Ms Bishop said,  (Hansard 2016, p. 1).

The Minister continued, “ensuring this is in Australian’s national interests,” Ms  Bishop said, “the statement on climate change is being tabled by the Turnball government for consideration, to enable ratification of this historic agreement by the end of this year,” (Hansard 2016, p. 1).

Climate change, a subject so complex with many elements involved has one link in common which is humanity. As government leaders around the world unite to address this challenge, “We must continue to show leadership and encourage all countries to ratify the agreement,” Papua New Guinea Prime Minister Peter O’Neill said (Shepard 2016, n.p). Climate change is everybody’s problem: the world is in our hands.



Australian Broadcast Corporation, ABC24 News 2016, Malcolm Turnball presser:  Pacific, ABC24 News

Annett, T 2014, Boyne beach erosion continues to frustrate, The Gladstone Observer 2016, viewed 9 September 2016,

Daily Telegraph 2016, PImage: PM, Prime Minister Malcolm Turnball tackles climate change, disaster mitigation at ASEAN Summit, viewed 9 September 2016,

Chavar, A J, Laffin, B, Landler M, Davenport C 2016, Obama on ‘terrifying’ threat of climate change, New York Times, viewed 9 September 2016,

Cohen, S 2016, Climate denial and sea level rise, The Hugginton Post 2016, viewed 9 September 2016,

Gillis, J 2016, Flooding of Coast, caused by global warming, has already begun, The New York Times, Science, viewed 9 September 2016,

Gladstone Regional Council (GRC) 2016a, Shoreline erosion management plan final report, 2014, viewed 9 September 2016,

Gladstone Regional Council (GRC) 2016b, Wild cattle creek erosion control to receive crucial funding, Budget 2016-17, viewed 9 September 2016,

Hansard 2016, Australia, House of Representatives 2016, Debates, Questions without notice – climate change, 31 August, pp. 65, viewed 9 September 2016,;query=Id%3A%22chamber%2Fhansardr%2Ff706773d-28cd-4fb7-b62a-9ed884a645d8%2F0161%22

Jones, M 2013, Community climate change: how heroes shape our perception of climate science, Centre for Public Administration and Policy Virginia Tech, Social Science Quarterly, pp. 1-39, viewed 9 September 2016,–how-heroes-shape-our

McCright, A 2010, The political dynamics of climate change, Workshop on Sociological Perspectives on Global Climate Change 2010, National Science Foundation, pp. 108, viewed 9 September 2016,

SBS 2016, SBS world news radio: climate research will once again be a core priority for Australia’s national science agency, the CSIRO, following intervention from new science minister Greg Hunt, viewed 9 September 2016,

Shephard, T 2016, Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull tackles climate change, disaster mitigation at ASEAN Summit, News Corp Australia Network, The Daily Telegraph, viewed 9 September 2016,

The Gladstone Observer 2016, Image: Wild Cattle Creek, Erosion threatens wild cattle creek at Tannum Sands, , viewed 9 September 2016,

The Gladstone Observer 2014, Image:  Boyne river mouth, Boyne beach erosion continues to frustrate,  viewed 9 September 2016,

Supporting the story: Packaging and supplementing your writing

Week Ten
By Amanda McRae
Practical – Photo Essay

A Heron Island Experience

When you arrive at the tropical Heron Island this is what you see.  A jetty as you disembark off the ferry and friendly staff that assist you to your accommodation.


 I am lucky to have won a holiday for three days and two nights, at the Heron Island resort on this amazing island located east of Gladstone, Queensland on the Great Barrier Reef.


The island, surrounded by clear turquoise water and an abundance of wildlife both under the water and on the island in their natural environment.

Source:  The Blonde Nomads (2016)


Heron Island is known to become home for breeding turtles from December to April (Heron Island 2016, n.p).  I have not yet had an opportunity to see the turtle hatchlings, however, it is definitely on my lists to see and experience.

Source:  Heron Island (2016)

Enjoying some time away from technology I found there is a lot of activities to keep you occupied.  Including snorkeling, diving, playing pool, even playing a game of giant chess and more.

Source:  The Blonde Nomads (2016)

In particular, on this night when I stayed it was a full moon.  The sea animals put on a show, it was amazing to see.  There were so many different animals like stingrays, sharks, turtles, dolphins, parrotfish, Nemo and more.

Source:  Blonde Nomads (2016)


Source: Heron Island (2016)

Now after all the fun, feeling all refreshed and relaxed, my time on the Island is coming to a end.  Until next time Heron Island, it has been a pleasure. Hopefully see you in turtle season soon.


Source:  The Blonde Nomads (2016)
Practical:  Headline

Three alternative headlines for the media release story with supporting a sentence of why it could be a possible headline (Ames 2016).

1.  Two people are left in a critical condition while attending the popular FakeComicCon convention.

In this headline, it states two people are critical which is important and then follows where the people got in the critical condition.

2.  A popular FakeComicCon convention play fight turns very real leaving two people critical and eight needing treatment.

This headline says where the incident happened, why and how many people are critical and injured.

3.  A violent fight occurred between 40 cosplayers at a popular FakeComicCon in Brisbane.

This headline starts with what happened, then leads to who the incident was between and it follows onto where the fight occurred.

Technical:  Quiz 10 – Punctuation

After a couple of attempts, I received 100%.  This was an interesting quiz in the way that it really made me think about where the apostrophes go and also made me second guess my answers.  Apostrophes are basic however, we use them every day whilst writing.  Having done this quiz now and read the textbook Hicks (2013 pp. 74-92), I will be more mindful of my punctuation while writing in the future. quiz-10


Ames, K 2016, COMM11007: Media writing – week 10 -study guide, CQUniversity, viewed 8 September 2016,

Ames, K 2016, Media writing: photo captions, viewed 11 September 2016, Storify 2016,

Hicks, W 2013, English for journalists: twentieth-anniversary edition, Routledge, Abingdon, Oxon.

Heron Island 2016, Images, Facebook 2004, viewed 8 October 2016,

The Blonde Nomads 2016, Images, viewed 8 October 2016,

Review a newsletter

Week Nine
By Amanda McRae
Inquiry:  Review a newsletter

For week nine the focus is on reviewing a newsletter from Crocodile Specialist Group website and answering specific questions outlined under the activity heading. (Ames 2016a).  The answers are summarized in the review below:

The newsletter publication chosen is Siamese Crocodile Crocodylus siamensis.  A well researched and highly effective publication including lots of references, a balance between facts, images, graphics and varied topics to support the written text (Ames 2016b, p. 4).

After reading Siamese crocodile Cocodylus siamensis publication newsletter, which I discussed above, does provide the in depth factual information from the specialist team. Targeting academics, conservationist, students, animal lovers, journalist and more. Proving to be a good online resource to find accurate, reliable, factual and credible information.

The newsletter shows an in depth detail with headings about; the breed of animal scientific names, the animals locations on a map and further discussions of where they live in different countries, principle threats, if they are endangered, ecology and natural headings, conservation and many more (Simpson 2012).

One story which a scientific journalist could create from this publication could be as Simpson (2011, p. 120) states that this particular species of crocodile, ‘Crocodylus siamensis’, is critically endangered with severe decline in numbers.  The topic could be chosen for many reasons some being; it is current, news worthy, informative, factual and bringing awareness to the species (Simpson 2016).

Technical – Quiz nine – Punctuation

I enjoyed attempting the quiz this week, as it is a good to see where I sit regarding punctuation.  The area where I will be more mindful on in the future while writing is just the placing of the comma in a sentence.  The textbook is a fantastic guide (Hicks 2016)!


Ames, K 2016a, Week 9 – blog, COMM11007 Media Writing, CQUniversity, pp. 1-2, viewed 19 September 2016,

Ames, K 2016b, Week 9 – newsletters and brochures, Moodle, CQUniversity, 2016, viewed 16 September 2016,

Crocodile Specialist Group 2016, CSG Newsletter, viewed 4 September 2016,

Hicks, W 2013, English for journalists: twentieth-anniversary edition, Routledge, Abingdon, Oxon.

Simpson B & Benzuijen M, Siamese crocodile Crocodylus siamensis”, 2012, pp. 120-126) viewed 16 September 2016,

Big Brother Generation

COMM11008 – Blog Five
By Amanda McRae

A cyber world’s expert, Dmitri Alperovitch, does not believe Australian government has done enough in educating the public regarding cyber security threats, given a sense of complacency (Bresser 2016, n.p). Never before have we been more connected than now. The twentieth century introduced the world and governments to the internet.  Being connected online comes with many benefits like instant sharing of information, resources, and communication throughout the world, however, with it comes the threat of Cybersecurity.

American President Barack Obama stated, “It’s the great irony of our Information Age…the very technologies that empower us to create and to build also empower those who would disrupt and destroy. And this paradox — seen and unseen — is something that we experience every day,” (Anderson 2011, p. 116).  The Cybersecurity threats are not just relative to Australia but globally.

463368796 (1).jpg
Source: Getty Images – Justin Sullivan


The reality television series Big Brother was introduced to Austalia in 2004 “Big Brother is watching,” “the eye in the sky,” well via cameras watching every move though only for a harmless storyline.  A frightening thought, now a reality via the internet, “Big Brother is watching”, whether “Big Brother” be hackers, cyber criminals, threatening privacy and cyber security.  Check out this Cybersense video link

Big Brother (2016)


According to Slocombe (2016, p. 76), last year in 2015, there were over 1,200 cyber security incidents in Australia, both involving government, and non-government organisations.  Australian Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull states this equates to over A$1 billion in cybercrime, Australian Crime Commission estimated (PHYS ORG 2016, n.p).

In 2014, hackers stole 500 million of users information online from the big internet giant Yahoo (ABC NewsRadio 2016).

The recent new online survey Census debacle, affected households throughout Australia, raised questions of online cyber security and safety. At any time, Besser (2016, n.p) reports, with an internet connection, devices of almost anything; phones, computers, even cars, are vulnerable to being hacked.

A multi-million dollar budget Cybersecurity strategy has been devised to combat hacking and strengthen security over the next ten years.  “This Strategy addresses how we can continue to protect ourselves and be more resilient…as individuals, businesses, governments and as a nation,” said Turnbull (Prime Minister 2016).

Figure 1:  Australian Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull  Source:  PHYS ORG (2016)

Former Central Intelligence Agency boss Michael Hayden interview. Source: ABC News (2016)

Cybersecurity is proving, “to be one of the defining challenges of the 21st century” (NBC News 2016, n.p). As the internet and technology advances, generations become more internet savvy, Slocombe (2016, p. 76), said, “yes the threats are increasing, but so too is awareness and defences against them.”  “The Australian Government knows it needs to protect these things and will continue to strive to stay ahead of whatever the threat environment is,” said Australian Government Cyber Advisor (Besser 2016).

Stay smart online link

Australian Cyber Security Centre (2016)




Anderson, W & Johnson, L 2011, ‘Current United States presidential views on cyber security and computer crime with corresponding Department of Justice Enforcement guidelines‘, Journal of International Diversity, Missouri State University, no. 4, pp. 116.

Australian Broadcast Corporation (ABC) NewsRadio 2016, Yahoo, Twitter, viewed 23 September 2016,

Australian Broadcast Corporation (ABC) News 2016, Government computer network breached in cyber attacks as experts warn of espionage threat, viewed 3 September 2016,

Australian Cyber Security Centre 2016, New cyber security strategy launched, viewed 3 September 2016,

Australian Government, Department of Cybersense videos, viewed 23 September 2016, Defence,

Australian Government 2016, Stay smart online, viewed 30 August 2016,

Artic Sheep, Census post, Twitter 2016, view 25 August 2016,

Besser, L & Stockwell, P 2016, Cyber War, Four Corners, 30 August, viewed 22 September 2016,

Ceely, S 2016, Internet of hacked things: the biggest threat to online safety is ourselves,Four Corners 2016, viewed 30 August 2016,

Huffing Post 2016, The Census website was deliberately hacked, prompting massive crash, viewed 25 August 2016,

Joff, Census post, Twitter 2016, viewed 25 August 2016,

(NBC) News 2016,  Obama announces executive action on Cybersecurity,  February 2015, viewed 23 September 2016,

Phys Org 2016, Australia admits government hack attacks, boots cyber security, viewed 3 September 2016,

Prime Minister of Australia 2016, The Hon Malcolm Turnball MP, Australia’s cyber security strategy,  21 April, p. 1, viewed 23 September 2016,

Rao, S & wires 2016, News Corp Australia Network, 2016, Australian cyber crime threats: Four Corners investigates how hackers are hacking into our information, viewed 22 September 2016,

Slocombe, G 2016, ‘Cybersecurity: threats multiply, but awareness and defences are strengthened’, Asia-Pacific Defence Reporter, September 2016, vol. 42, no. 7, pp. 74-76.